Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
Subproject B2: Star Cluster Formation and Evolution – From Molecular Clouds to Tidal Fields

Subproject B2: Star Cluster Formation and Evolution – From Molecular Clouds to Tidal Fields

Ralf Klessen (ITA), Simon Glover (ITA), Geneviève Parmentier (ARI)

Subproject B2 focused on the formation and evolution of individual molecular clouds rather than on Galactic scales as in B1. In the first funding period, the chemical network was improved to better account for the coupling between matter and the interstellar radiation field. We now have the technical capabilities to describe the formation and evolution of star forming molecular clouds with complementary magnetohydrodynamic simulations codes (FLASH, Gadget, Arepo) coupled to a time-dependent chemical network for the most relevant atomic and molecular species in the ISM (subproject B3, completed) with a realistic link between matter and the ambient radiation field. We can use sink particles to model protostellar collapse and star formation and we have developed modules for the most important feedback processes (supernova explosions, ionizing radiation, winds and protostellar outflows; subproject B4, completed). Moreover, realistic synthetic maps can now be constructed from the simulated clouds based on detailed radiative transfer calculations with the RADMC-3D code. In B2, the first 3-D models of converging flows that self-consistently trace the formation of H2 and CO were calculated. Also, it was shown that CO cooling is not needed to form stars; C+ cooling is sufficient.

In the second funding period, we focus on one of the aspects of the original subproject B2, namely the formation and early evolution of star clusters in molecular clouds. Understanding these processes is a key problem of Milky Way research. We will develop a multi-scale, forward- and backward-approach in order to determine the typical initial conditions of star cluster formation in the Galactic disk and to characterize their subsequent dynamical evolution. We follow two complementary pathways. Firstly, we perform a large set of simulations of molecular cloud formation, evolution and destruction, consistently taking into account the impact of the clouds’ Galactic environment. Secondly, we develop a comprehensive model of the secular evolution of the star clusters, from gas expulsion to the dissolution in the tidal field of the Galactic disk. We relate both approaches to the available observational data in subproject B5.

Publications

Schauer, Anna T. P.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Latif, Muhammad A.; Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Whalen, Daniel J.; Zackrisson, Erik
05/2017 MNRAS 467, 2288


Sormani, Mattia C.; Treß, Robin G.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Glover, Simon C. O.
04/2017 MNRAS 466, 407


Gatto, Andrea; Walch, Stefanie; Naab, Thorsten; Girichidis, Philipp; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Clark, Paul C.; Peters, Thomas; Derigs, Dominik; Baczynski, Christian; Puls, Joachim
04/2017 MNRAS 466, 1903


Peters, Thomas; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C. O.; Girichidis, Philipp; Pellegrini, Eric; Klessen, Ralf S.; Wünsch, Richard; Gatto, Andrea; Baczynski, Christian
04/2017 MNRAS 466, 3293


Pardi, A.; Girichidis, P.; Naab, T.; Walch, S.; Peters, T.; Heitsch, F.; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Wünsch, R.; Gatto, A.
03/2017 MNRAS 465, 4611


Peñaloza, Camilo H.; Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Shetty, Rahul; Klessen, Ralf S.
02/2017 MNRAS 465, 2277


Howard, Corey; Pudritz, Ralph; Klessen, Ralf
01/2017 ApJ 834, 40


Bertelli Motta, C.; Clark, P. C.; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Pasquali, A.
11/2016 MNRAS 462, 4171


Glover, Simon C. O.; Smith, Rowan J.
11/2016 MNRAS 462, 3011


Zhukovska, Svitlana; Dobbs, Clare; Jenkins, Edward B.; Klessen, Ralf S.
11/2016 ApJ 831, 147


Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Monaco, L.; Sbordone, L.; François, P.; Gallagher, A. J.; Plez, B.; Zaggia, S.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Cayrel, R.; Koch, A.; Steffen, M.; Salvadori, S.; Klessen, R.; Glover, S.; Christlieb, N.
10/2016 A&A 595, L6


Beuther, H.; Bihr, S.; Rugel, M.; Johnston, K.; Wang, Y.; Walter, F.; Brunthaler, A.; Walsh, A. J.; Ott, J.; Stil, J.; Henning, Th.; Schierhuber, T.; Kainulainen, J.; Heyer, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Anderson, L. D.; Longmore, S. N.; Klessen, R. S.; Glover, S. C. O.; Urquhart, J. S.; Plume, R.; Ragan, S. E.; Schneider, N.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Menten, K. M.; Smith, R.; Roy, N.; Shanahan, R.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Bigiel, F.
10/2016 A&A 595, A32


Konstandin, L.; Schmidt, W.; Girichidis, P.; Peters, T.; Shetty, R.; Klessen, R. S.
08/2016 MNRAS 460, 4483


Simpson, Christine M.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Marinacci, Federico; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Smith, Rowan J.
08/2016 ApJ 827, L29


Schober, J.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Klessen, R. S.
08/2016 ApJ 827, 109


Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S.; Barausse, Enrico; Magg, Mattis; Stacy, Athena
07/2016 MNRAS 460, L74


Szucs, László; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.
07/2016 MNRAS 460, 82


Shetty, Rahul; Roman-Duval, Julia; Hony, Sacha; Cormier, Diane; Klessen, Ralf S.; Konstandin, Lukas K.; Loredo, Thomas; Pellegrini, Eric W.; Ruppert, David
07/2016 MNRAS 460, 67


Parmentier, G.
07/2016 ApJ 826, 74


Hu, Chia-Yu; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.
06/2016 MNRAS 458, 3528


Ibáñez-Mejía, Juan C.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klessen, Ralf S.; Baczynski, Christian
06/2016 ApJ 824, 41


Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Csengeri, T.; Schneider, N.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R. S.
05/2016 A&A 590, A104


Schmidt, Tobias M.; Bigiel, Frank; Klessen, Ralf S.; de Blok, W. J. G.
04/2016 MNRAS 457, 2642


Bihr, S.; Johnston, K. G.; Beuther, H.; Anderson, L. D.; Ott, J.; Rugel, M.; Bigiel, F.; Brunthaler, A.; Glover, S. C. O.; Henning, T.; Heyer, M. H.; Klessen, R. S.; Linz, H.; Longmore, S. N.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Menten, K. M.; Plume, R.; Schierhuber, T.; Shanahan, R.; Stil, J. M.; Urquhart, J. S.; Walsh, A. J.
04/2016 A&A 588, A97


Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.
03/2016 MNRAS 456, 3596


Girichidis, Philipp; Walch, Stefanie; Naab, Thorsten; Gatto, Andrea; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Clark, Paul C.; Peters, Thomas; Derigs, Dominik; Baczynski, Christian
03/2016 MNRAS 456, 3432


Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Klessen, R. S.; Simon, R.; Fechtenbaum, S.; Herpin, F.; Tremblin, P.; Csengeri, T.; Myers, P. C.; Hill, T.; Cunningham, M.; Federrath, C.
03/2016 A&A 587, A74


Bertram, Erik; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Ragan, Sarah E.; Klessen, Ralf S.
02/2016 MNRAS 455, 3763


Smith, Rowan J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Fuller, Gary A.
02/2016 MNRAS 455, 3640


Walsh, Andrew J.; Beuther, Henrik; Bihr, Simon; Johnston, Katharine G.; Dawson, Joanne R.; Ott, Jürgen; Longmore, Steven N.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Ragan, Sarah; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi; Brunthaler, Andreas; Urquhart, James; Menten, Karl; Bigiel, Frank; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Rugel, Michael
02/2016 MNRAS 455, 3494


Roman-Duval, Julia; Heyer, Mark; Brunt, Christopher M.; Clark, Paul; Klessen, Ralf; Shetty, Rahul
02/2016 ApJ 818, 144


Girichidis, Philipp; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Hanasz, Michal; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Gatto, Andrea; Peters, Thomas; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Clark, Paul C.; Baczynski, Christian
01/2016 ApJ 816, L19


Schauer, Anna T. P.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.
12/2015 MNRAS 454, 2441


De Pree, C. G.; Peters, T.; Mac Low, M. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Goss, W. M.; Galván-Madrid, R.; Keto, E. R.; Klessen, R. S.; Monsrud, A.
12/2015 ApJ 815, 123


Baczynski, C.; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.
11/2015 MNRAS 454, 380


Walch, S.; Girichidis, P.; Naab, T.; Gatto, A.; Glover, S. C. O.; Wünsch, R.; Klessen, R. S.; Clark, P. C.; Peters, T.; Derigs, D.; Baczynski, C.
11/2015 MNRAS 454, 238


Peters, Thomas; Girichidis, Philipp; Gatto, Andrea; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Baczynski, Christian
11/2015 ApJ 813, L27


Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.
09/2015 MNRAS 452, 2057


Bertram, Erik; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Klessen, Ralf S.
08/2015 MNRAS 451, 3679


Bihr, S.; Beuther, H.; Ott, J.; Johnston, K. G.; Brunthaler, A.; Anderson, L. D.; Bigiel, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Churchwell, E.; Glover, S. C. O.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Heitsch, F.; Henning, T.; Heyer, M. H.; Hill, T.; Hughes, A.; Klessen, R. S.; Linz, H.; Longmore, S. N.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Menten, K. M.; Motte, F.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Plume, R.; Ragan, S. E.; Roy, N.; Schilke, P.; Schneider, N.; Smith, R. J.; Stil, J. M.; Urquhart, J. S.; Walsh, A. J.; Walter, F.
08/2015 A&A 580, A112


Bertram, Erik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Glover, Simon C. O.
07/2015 MNRAS 451, 196


Stanchev, Orlin; Veltchev, Todor V.; Kauffmann, Jens; Donkov, Sava; Shetty, Rahul; Körtgen, Bastian; Klessen, Ralf S.
07/2015 MNRAS 451, 1056


Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Spite, M.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Klessen, R. S.; François, P.; Molaro, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Zaggia, S.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Christlieb, N.; Clark, P. C.; Glover, S. C. O.; Hammer, F.; Koch, A.; Monaco, L.; Sbordone, L.; Steffen, M.
07/2015 A&A 579, A28


Schneider, N.; Csengeri, T.; Klessen, R. S.; Tremblin, P.; Ossenkopf, V.; Peretto, N.; Simon, R.; Bontemps, S.; Federrath, C.
06/2015 A&A 578, A29


Gatto, A.; Walch, S.; Low, M.-M. Mac; Naab, T.; Girichidis, P.; Glover, S. C. O.; Wünsch, R.; Klessen, R. S.; Clark, P. C.; Baczynski, C.; Peters, T.; Ostriker, J. P.; Ibáñez-Mejía, J. C.; Haid, S.
05/2015 MNRAS 449, 1057


Hony, S.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Galliano, F.; Galametz, M.; Cormier, D.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Dib, S.; Hughes, A.; Klessen, R. S.; Roman-Duval, J.; Smith, L.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bot, C.; Carlson, L.; Gordon, K.; Indebetouw, R.; Lebouteiller, V.; Lee, M.-Y.; Madden, S. C.; Meixner, M.; Oliveira, J.; Rubio, M.; Sauvage, M.; Wu, R.
04/2015 MNRAS 448, 1847


Schneider, N.; Ossenkopf, V.; Csengeri, T.; Klessen, R. S.; Federrath, C.; Tremblin, P.; Girichidis, P.; Bontemps, S.; André, Ph.
03/2015 A&A 575, A79


Hartwig, Tilman; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S.; Glover, Simon C. O.
03/2015 MNRAS 447, 3892


Bertram, Erik; Konstandin, Lukas; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.
02/2015 MNRAS 446, 3777


Hartwig, Tilman; Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Sasaki, Mei
02/2015 ApJ 799, 114


Schober, J.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Klessen, R. S.
01/2015 MNRAS 446, 2


Konstandin, L.; Shetty, R.; Girichidis, P.; Klessen, R. S.
01/2015 MNRAS 446, 1775


Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Pudritz, R. E.; Klessen, R. S.
01/2015 MNRAS 446, 2776


Editor: T. Lisker
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